“What we know is a drop, what we don’t know is an ocean.”
Sir Isaac Newton is a known Mathematician and Physists and he is majerly known for his theory about the law of gravity, but his “Principia Mathematica” published in 1686 with its three laws of motion greatly influenced the mordern science and braiught Enlightenment in Europe. He was Born in 1643 in Woolsthorpe, England, Sir Isaac Newton began developing his theories on light, calculus and celestial mechanics when he had taken break from Cambridge University. Using Years of research and practice in 1687 publication of “Principia,” a landmark work that established the universal laws of motion and gravity. Newton’s second major publication was, “Opticks,” detailed his experiments to determine the properties of light which opened a new branch in physics. He also did learn Biblical history and alchemy, the famed scientist served as president of the Royal Society of London and master of England’s Royal Mint until his death in 1727.
Isaac Newton was born on January 4, 1643, in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, England. He was the son of a farmer who died three months before he was born. His education was interrupted by a failed attempt to turn him into a farmer, and he attended the King’s School in Grantham before enrolling at the University of Cambridge’s Trinity College in 1661.
Newton studied a classical curriculum at Cambridge, but he became fascinated by the works of modern philosophers such as René Descartes, even devoting a set of notes to his outside readings he titled “Quaestiones Quaedam Philosophicae” (“Certain Philosophical Questions”). When the Great Plague shuttered Cambridge in 1665, Newton got his first break and as he returned home and began formulating his theories on calculus, light and color, this was the time of the famous inspired moment which happend in his farm the setting for the supposed falling apple that led him his work on gravity.
Newton returned to Cambridge in 1667 and was elected a minor fellow. He reinvented the first reflecting telescope in 1668, and the following year he received his Master of Arts degree and took over as Cambridge’s Lucasian Professor of Mathematics.He was elected to the Royal Society the following year and published his notes on optics for his peers.
He further devoted his time in the field of light.Through his experiments with refraction, Newton determined that white light was a composite of all the colors on the spectrum, and he asserted that light was composed of particles instead of waves. His methods drew sharp rebuke from established Society member Robert Hooke, who was unsparing again with Newton’s follow-up paper in 1675. Known for his temperamental defense of his work, Newton engaged in heated correspondence with Hooke before suffering a nervous breakdown and withdrawing from the public eye in 1678. In the following years, he returned to his earlier studies on the forces governing gravity and dabbled in alchemy.
In 1684, English astronomer Edmund Halley paid a visit to the secluded Newton. Upon learning that Newton had mathematically worked out the elliptical paths of celestial bodies, Halley urged him to organize his notes. The result was the 1687 publication of “Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica” (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), which established the three laws of motion and the law of universal gravity. Newton’s three laws of motion state that (1) Every object in a state of uniform motion will remain in that state of motion unless an external force acts on it; (2) Force equals mass times acceleration: F=MA and (3) For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction(Which is still one of the fundemental princeples used by most of the space reserach organisations).
This is was the turning point in Newtons Career. “Principia” propelled Newton to celebrity in intellectual circles, eventually earning universal acclaim as one of the most important works of modern science. His work was a foundational part of the European Enlightenment and mordern science.
Newton moved to London permanently after being named warden of the Royal Mint in 1696, earning a promotion to master of the Mint three years later. Determined to prove his position wasn’t merely symbolic, Newton moved the pound sterling from the silver to the gold standard and sought to punish counterfeiters.
In 1704 he published his next major work “Opticks.” which is based largely from his earlier notes on the subject, the book detailed Newton’s experiments with refraction and the color spectrum, closing with his ruminations on such matters as energy and electricity.
In 1705, he was knighted by Queen Anne of England. Newton was also a student of history and religious doctrines, and his writings on those subjects were compiled into multiple books that were published posthumously. He never gotnever married, Newton spent his later years living with his niece at Cranbury Park near Winchester, England. He died in his sleep on March 31, 1727, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
A giant even among the brilliant minds that drove the Scientific Revolution, Newton is remembered as a transformative scholar, inventor and writer. He eradicated any doubts about the heliocentric model of the universe by establishing celestial mechanics, his precise methodology giving birth to what is known as the scientific method. Later years insprired great mathematicians and Scientists to discover new theories , like theories of space-time and gravity discovered by the Great Albert Einstein.